For successful push recovery in response to perturbations, a humanoid robot must select an appropriate stabilizing action. Existing approaches are limited because they are often derived from reduced-order models that ignore system-specific aspects such as swing leg dynamics or kinematic and actuation limits. In this study, the formulation of capturability for whole-body humanoid robots is introduced as a partition-based approach in the augmented center-of-mass (COM)-state space. The 1-step capturable boundary is computed from an optimization-based method that incorporates whole-body system properties with full-order nonlinear system dynamics in the sagittal plane including contact interactions with the ground and conditions for achieving a complete stop after stepping. The 1-step capturable boundary, along with the balanced state boundaries, are used to quantify the relative contributions of different strategies and contacts in maintaining or recovering balance in push recovery. The computed boundaries are also incorporated as explicit criteria into a partition-aware push recovery controller that monitors the robot’s COM state to selectively exploit the ankle, hip, or captured stepping strategies. The push recovery simulation experiments demonstrated the validity of the stability boundaries in fully exploiting a humanoid robot’s balancing capability through appropriate balancing actions in response to perturbations. Overall, the system-specific capturability with the whole-body system properties and dynamics outperformed that derived from a typical reduced-order model.
Journal of Mechanisms and Robotics Open Issues